Ukraine

Risk Level: Two - Danger exists

[ about risk levels ]
There is an active conflict zone in eastern Ukraine along the border with Russia. The main hotspot is the Line of Contact which runs north-south through the UKDV/Dnipropetrovsk FIR. Escalating tensions here as of April 2021, with a large military build-up and an increase in ceasefire violations. Essentially, similar conditions to those prior to the shoot-down of MH17 in 2014. The US warns operators to exercise extreme caution within 100nm of the entire Russia-Ukraine border, and bans US operators from overflying the eastern part of the UKDV FIR. Several other states have also issued airspace warnings for eastern Ukraine.

The primary risk is for operations near the Russia-Ukraine border and Line of Contact in the UKDV/Dnipropetrovsk FIR. Should hostilities escalate here, the airspace on both sides could be exposed to potential weapons activity posing a risk to civil aircraft from misidentification or miscalculation.

The secondary risk affects the UKFV/Simferopol FIR which is disputed airspace. (Ukraine:UKFV, Russia:URFV). The risk here stems from aircraft potentially receiving confusing and conflicting air traffic control instructions from both Ukrainian and Russian ATC when operating over the region.

Major events:
Apr 2021: US FAA warns of escalating tensions along the Ukraine/Russia border.
Oct 2020: US operators now allowed to overfly Crimea again (UKFV/Simeropol FIR). Ops in the eastern half of the UKDV/Dnipro FIR remain prohibited.
July 2014: Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 flying over Ukraine at FL330 just west of the Russian border was mistakenly shot down after being misidentified as a hostile target by Russian-backed troops on the ground.

Current warnings list :

Source Reference Issued Valid to
Canada Notam CZQX H1069/21 29 Apr 2021 29 Jul 2021
USA Notam KICZ A0013/21 17 Apr 2021 Ongoing
USA FAA Information Note Russia/Ukraine 13 Apr 2021 Ongoing
France AIC 02/21 11 Feb 2021 Ongoing
USA SFAR 113 27 Oct 2020 27 Oct 2021
USA Notam A0029/20 26 Feb 2020 27 Oct 2020
Ukraine Notam A0920/19 25 Apr 2019 Ongoing
Russia Notam A0937/19 26 Feb 2019 22 May 2019
UK UK AIP ENR 1.1 (1.4.5) 13 Oct 2017 Ongoing
UK UK AIP ENR 1.1 (1.4.5) 20 Feb 2015 Ongoing
Source: Canada
Issued: 29-Apr-21, valid until: 29 Jul 2021
Plain English: Avoid the UKFV/Simferopol and UKDV/Dnipropetrovsk FIRs in the east of the country due to risk from heightened military activity and anti-aviation weaponry.
AIRSPACE SECURITY WARNING ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT IN RESPONSE TO THE VOLATILE SECURITY SITUATION IN UKRAINE. POTENTIAL RISK FM HEIGHTENED MIL ACT AND DEDICATED ANTI-AVIATION WEAPONRY IN THE CRIMEAN PENINSULA, AND THREAT POSED BY MISCALCULATION AND MISCOMMUNICATION. AIR OPR AND OWNERS OF ACFT REGISTERED IN CANADA ARE ADZ NOT TO ENTER THE SIMFEROPOL (UKFV) AND DNIPROPETROVSK (UKDV) FIRS. 29 APR 15:46 2021 UNTIL 29 JUL 16:00 2021.
Source: USA
Issued: 17-Apr-21, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Operators should exercise extreme caution within 100nm of the entire Russia-Ukraine border due to the risk of misidentification or miscalculation from potential weapons activity.
SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ADVISORY FOR THE DNIPRO FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (UKDV), THE SIMFEROPOL FIR (UKFV), AND THE KYIV FIR (UKBV).

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) BELOW ARE ADVISED TO EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN FLYING INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE DNIPRO FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (UKDV), THE SIMFEROPOL FIR (UKFV), AND THE KYIV FIR (UKBV) (INCLUDES THAT PORTION OF THE KYIV UPPER INFORMATION REGION (UIR) (UKBU) AIRSPACE WITHIN THE LATERAL LIMITS OF THE UKDV, UKFV, AND UKBV FIRS) DUE TO POTENTIAL SAFETY-OF-FLIGHT RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ESCALATING REGIONAL TENSIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE, WHICH COULD POTENTIALY RESULT IN NO-NOTICE CROSS-BORDER SKIRMISHES, INCREASED MILITARY ACTIVITIES, AND/OR CONFLICT.

A. APPLICABILITY. THIS NOTAM APPLIES TO ALL: U.S. AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS; PERSONS EXERCISING THE PRIVILEGES OF AN AIRMAN CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY THE FAA, EXCEPT WHEN SUCH PERSONS ARE OPERATING U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT FOR A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER; AND OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED CIVIL AIRCRAFT, EXCEPT WHEN THE OPERATOR OF SUCH AIRCRAFT IS A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER.

B. PLANNING. THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) ABOVE PLANNING TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA ARE STRONGLY REMINDED TO REVIEW CURRENT SECURITY/THREAT INFORMATION AND NOTAMS; COMPLY WITH ALL APPLICABLE FAA REGULATIONS, OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS, MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATIONS, AND LETTERS OF AUTHORIZATION, INCLUDING UPDATING B450; AND, TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT POSSIBLE, PROVIDE AT LEAST 72-HOUR ADVANCE NOTICE OF PLANNED FLIGHTS TO THE FAA AT FAA-WATCH@FAA.GOV WITH SPECIFIC FLIGHT DETAILS.

C. OPERATIONS. PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) ABOVE WHO DECIDE TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA SHOULD PLAN TO EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION DURING FLIGHT OPERATIONS DUE TO THE POTENTIAL RISK TO CIVIL AVIATION OF MISIDENTIFICATION, MISPERCEPTION, OR MISCALCULATION, PARTICULARLY IN THE EVENT OF POTENTIAL HOSTILITIES. THE PRIMARY CIVIL AVIATION RISK CONCERN IS FOR OPERATIONS NEAR OR OVER THE LINE OF CONTACT AND NEAR OR OVER THE UKRAINE RUSSIA BORDER.

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) ABOVE MUST REPORT SAFETY AND/OR SECURITY INCIDENTS TO THE FAA AT +1 202-267-3333.

SFC - UNL, 17 APR 00:30 2021 UNTIL PERM. CREATED: 17 APR 00:31 2021
Source: USA
Issued: 13-Apr-21, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Escalating tensions in the east of Ukraine along the border with Russia. Large military buildup and recent increase in ceasefire violations. Several new reports of GPS jamming in the area, along with known surveillance of civil flights by military systems. Similar conditions to those prior to the shoot-down of MH17 in 2014. Should hostilities escalate, the airspace on both sides of the border could be exposed to potential weapons activity posing a risk to civil aircraft from misidentification or misperception.
Title: FAA Information Note - Russia/Ukraine - Escalating Border Tensions.

Click the link for full text.
Source: France
Reference: AIC 02/21
Issued: 11-Feb-21, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Overflights of the UKFV and UKDV FIRs in the east of the country should only be planned over six Black Sea airways: M854, M856, M860, L851, M435, and M861.
From 22/10/2020 and until further notice, French air carriers and owners of aircraft registered in France are requested not to authorize their aircraft to penetrate into UKDV (DNIPROPETROVS’K) and UKFV (SIMFEROPOL) FIRs, except for routes segments M860 KUGOS - DIGAM, L851 KUGOS - ADINA, M854 SUMOL - RASIL, M856 RAKUR - DIGAM, M435 LAROM – RASIL and M861 RAKUR – BIRMA which are available for flight planning according to conditions published in Ukraine aeronautical information, and for which it is advisable to refer to the most current recommendations published by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).
Source: USA
Reference: SFAR 113
Issued: 27-Oct-20, valid until: 27 Oct 2021
Plain English: This SFAR extends the ban on US operators overflying the eastern part of the UKDV/Dnipropetrovsk FIR for another year due to a continued threat of arms fire in the region. However, restrictions have now been completely lifted on overflights of the UKFV/Simferopol FIR, as the security situation has sufficiently improved there.
This action amends and extends the Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) prohibiting certain flights in the specified areas of the Dnipropetrovsk Flight Information Region (FIR) (UKDV) by all: U.S. air carriers; U.S. commercial operators; persons exercising the privileges of an airman certificate issued by the FAA, except when such persons are operating U.S.-registered aircraft for a foreign air carrier; and operators of U.S.-registered civil aircraft, except when the operator of such aircraft is a foreign air carrier. The FAA finds this action necessary to address hazards to persons and aircraft engaged in such flight operations. However, due to changed conditions in Ukraine and the associated risks to U.S. civil aviation, this action does not extend the prohibition against certain flights in the specified areas of the Simferopol FIR (UKFV), which will expire on October 27, 2020. This action extends the expiration date of the prohibition against certain flights in the specified areas of the Dnipropetrovsk FIR (UKDV) from October 27, 2020, to October 27, 2021. Additionally, the FAA republishes the approval process and exemption information for this SFAR, consistent with other recently published flight prohibition SFARs, and makes minor administrative revisions.
Source: USA
Reference: Notam A0029/20
Issued: 26-Feb-20, valid until: 27 Oct 2020
Plain English: This is just a pointer Notam, directing people to read the SFAR which contains complete information about the US restrictions on Ukraine airspace.
A0029/20 (Issued for KICZ)
SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FLIGHT PROHIBITION AGAINST CERTAIN FLIGHTS IN THE SIMFEROPOL (UKFV) FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) AND DNIPROPETROVSK (UKDV) FIR.

14 CFR 91.1607 SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATION (SFAR) NO. 113 PROHIBITION AGAINST CERTAIN FLIGHTS IN THE SIMFEROPOL (UKFV) FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) AND DNIPROPETROVSK (UKDV) FIR WAS PUBLISHED IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER ON 19 OCT 2018 AND WAS EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS PROVIDED AT: HTTPS://WWW.FAA.GOV/AIR_TRAFFIC/PUBLICATIONS/US_RESTRICTIONS/.

SFC - UNL, 26 FEB 12:30 2020 UNTIL 27 OCT 23:59 2020. CREATED: 26 FEB 12:33 2020
Source: Ukraine
Reference: Notam A0920/19
Issued: 25-Apr-19, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Ukraine asks aircraft within Dnipro, Odesa, and Simferopol FIRs to only speak to Ukrainian ATC - callsigns Dnipro Radar and Odesa Radar. (Comment: for Simferopol, Russia says only talk to Russian ATC - hence the problem)
A0920/19 (Issued for UKDV UKFV UKOV)
ALL AIRCRAFT CREWS PERFORMING FLIGHTS WITHIN SIMFEROPOL FIR AND UTA DNIPRO-SOUTH / UTA ODESA-SOUTH SHALL ONLY COMPLY WITH ATC CLEARANCES AND INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY DNIPRO ACC (CALL SIGN DNIPRO RADAR) OR ODESA ACC (CALL SIGN ODESA RADAR). AIRCRAFT CREWS SHALL NOT COMPLY WITH INSTRUCTIONS FROM ANY STATION USING OTHER CALL SIGN WHILE FLYING WITHIN SIMFEROPOL FIR OR UTA DNIPRO-SOUTH AND UTA ODESA-SOUTH. ALL AIRCRAFT CREWS SHALL AS SOON AS POSSIBLE INFORM ODESA RADAR OR DNIPRO RADAR ABOUT ANY INSTRUCTIONS OR INFORMATION THAT THEY MIGHT HAVE RECEIVED FROM ANY STATION USING OTHER CALL SIGN FOR THE SAME AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY. REF AIC A 02/18.
26 APR 00:00 2019 UNTIL PERM. CREATED: 25 APR 16:50 2019
Source: Russia
Reference: Notam A0937/19
Issued: 26-Feb-19, valid until: 22 May 2019
Plain English: Russia declares iteself as the valid source of information for Simferopol FIR.
A0937/19 (Issued by URFV)
ALL NOTAM IN ALL SERIES CONCERNING SIMFEROPOL FIR, AERODROMES AND RADIO NAVIGATION AIDS LOCATED IN THE TERRAIN OF THE REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA ISSUED BY UKRAINE ARE NOT VALID. ATS WI SIMFEROPOL FIR BDRY PROVIDED IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIP RUSSIA. ALL RADIO NAVIGATION AIDS ARE AVBL AND PROVIDE ATS WI SIMFEROPOL FIR BDRY AND AT SIMFEROPOL AD.
26 FEB 13:40 2019 UNTIL 22 MAY 23:59 2019 ESTIMATED. CREATED: 26 FEB 13:51 2019
Source: UK
Issued: 13-Oct-17, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Operators should not enter UKDV/Dnipro or UKFV/Simferopol FIRs with the exception of airways L851, M856, M860, and M854.
Hazardous Situation in Ukraine

Potential risk to aviation overflying eastern Ukraine from dedicated anti-aviation weaponry.

Operators are advised not to enter the Dnipropetrovsk (UKDV) and Simferopol (UKFV) FIRs, with the exception of Airways L851, M856, M860 and M854.
Source: UK
Issued: 20-Feb-15, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Possible conflicting ATC instructions due to disputed airspace in the Simferopol FIR
Service Provision in Ukraine

As a result of the unrest within the territory and airspace of Ukraine, there remains the potential for confusion over service provision in the Simferopol (UKFV), in particular over the High Seas portion of the airspace.

Capacity may also be impacted in this area while all remaining Ukrainian FIRS appear to be operating normally.