Ukraine

Risk Level: Two - Danger exists

[ about risk levels ]
There is an active conflict zone in eastern Ukraine along the border with Russia. The US FAA bans US operators from overflying the eastern part of the UKDV/Dnipro FIR, and warns operators to exercise extreme caution within 100nm of the border on the Russian side. Several other states have also issued airspace warnings for eastern Ukraine.

The primary risk is for operations near the Russia-Ukraine border in the UKDV/Dnipro FIR. Should hostilities escalate here, the airspace on both sides could be exposed to potential weapons activity posing a risk to civil aircraft from misidentification or miscalculation.

The secondary risk affects the UKFV/Simferopol FIR (Ukraine:UKFV, Russia:URFV). The risk here stems from aircraft potentially receiving confusing and conflicting air traffic control instructions from both Ukrainian and Russian ATC. Russia annexed Crimea in 2014, and installed their own ATC for the region. However, Ukraine is responsible for the provision of ATC in the UKFV/Simferopol FIR, and asks overflights to only speak to Ukrainian ATC - callsigns Dnipro Radar and Odesa Radar. For more info, including a map of the ATS routes available here, check Ukraine AIC 14/21.

Ukraine has had two prohibited areas of airspace in place since 2014 - one over Crimea (UKP35), and the other over the Donbass region (UKP36). For details, check Ukraine AIP ENR 5.1-4.

Major events:
Dec 2021: US FAA warns of escalating tensions along the Ukraine/Russia border.
Oct 2021: US FAA updates SFAR extending flight ban on eastern part of the UKDV FIR to Oct 2023.
Oct 2020: US operators now allowed to overfly Crimea again (UKFV/Simeropol FIR). Ops in the eastern half of the UKDV/Dnipro FIR remain prohibited.
July 2014: Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 flying over Ukraine at FL330 just west of the Russian border was mistakenly shot down after being misidentified as a hostile target by Russian-backed troops on the ground.

Current warnings list :

Source Reference Issued Valid to
Canada Notam CZUL H0154/22 19 Jan 2022 19 Apr 2022
USA FAA Information Note Russia/Ukraine 13 Dec 2021 Ongoing
Ukraine Notam UKFV A5259/21 02 Dec 2021 24 Feb 2022
Russia Notam URFV U0088/21 02 Dec 2021 24 Feb 2022
USA SFAR 113 06 Oct 2021 27 Oct 2023
USA Notam KICZ A0012/21 17 Apr 2021 Ongoing
France AIC 18/21 22 Oct 2020 Ongoing
UK UK AIP ENR 1.1 (1.4.5) 13 Oct 2017 Ongoing
UK UK AIP ENR 1.1 (1.4.5) 20 Feb 2015 Ongoing
Source: Canada
Issued: 19-Jan-22, valid until: 19 Apr 2022
Plain English: Operators are advised not to enter the UKDV/Dnipropetrovsk and UKFV/Simferopol FIR at any level due to heightened military activity and risk from anti-aircraft weaponry in the Crimean Peninsula.
AIRSPACE SECURITY WARNING ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT IN RESPONSE TO THE VOLATILE SECURITY SITUATION IN UKRAINE. POTENTIAL RISK FROM HEIGHTENED MILITARY ACTIVITY AND DEDICATED ANTI-AVIATION WEAPONRY IN THE CRIMEAN PENINSULA, AND THREAT POSED BY MISCALCULATION AND MISCOMMUNICATION. AIR OPERATORS AND OWNERS OF AIRCRAFT REGISTERED IN CANADA ARE ADVISED NOT TO ENTER THE DNIPROPETROVSK (UKDV) AND SIMFEROPOL (UKFV) FIRS.
19 JAN 23:10 2022 UNTIL 19 APR 18:00 2022 ESTIMATED.
CREATED: 19 JAN 23:11 2022
Source: USA
Issued: 13-Dec-21, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Escalating tensions in the east of Ukraine along the border with Russia. Large military buildup, recent increase in ceasefire violations, several new reports of GPS jamming in the area. Similar conditions to those prior to the shoot-down of MH17 in 2014. Should hostilities escalate, the airspace on both sides of the border could be exposed to potential weapons activity posing a risk to civil aircraft.
Title: FAA Information Note - Russia/Ukraine - Escalating Tensions Could Pose Risk to Civil Aviation

Click the link for full text.
Source: Ukraine
Issued: 02-Dec-21, valid until: 24 Feb 2022
Plain English: Ukraine asks aircraft within Dnipro, Odesa, and Simferopol FIRs to only speak to Ukrainian ATC - callsigns Dnipro Radar and Odesa Radar. (Comment: for Simferopol, Russia says only talk to Russian ATC - hence the problem)
ALL ACFT CREWS PERFORMING FLIGHTS WITHIN SIMFEROPOL' FIR AND UTA DNIPRO-SOUTH / UTA ODESA-SOUTH SHALL ONLY COMPLY WITH ATC CLEARANCES AND INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY DNIPRO ACC (CALL SIGN DNIPRO RADAR) OR ODESA ACC (CALL SIGN ODESA RADAR). ACFT CREWS SHALL NOT COMPLY WITH INSTRUCTIONS FROM ANY STATION USING OTHER CALL SIGN WHILE FLYING WITHIN SIMFEROPOL' FIR OR UTA DNIPRO-SOUTH AND UTA ODESA-SOUTH. ALL ACFT CREWS SHALL AS SOON AS POSSIBLE INFORM ODESA RADAR OR DNIPRO RADAR ABOUT ANY INSTRUCTIONS OR INFORMATION THAT THEY MIGHT HAVE RECEIVED FROM ANY STATION USING OTHER CALL SIGN FOR THE SAME AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY. REF AIC A 14/21.
02 DEC 00:00 2021 UNTIL 23 FEB 23:59 2022 ESTIMATED.
CREATED: 30 NOV 10:22 2021
Source: Russia
Issued: 02-Dec-21, valid until: 24 Feb 2022
Plain English: Russia declares iteself as the valid source of information for Simferopol FIR.
ALL NOTAM IN ALL SERIES CONCERNING SIMFEROPOL FIR, AERODROMES AND RADIO NAVIGATION AIDS WI TERRITORY OF REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA ISSUED BY UKRAINE ARE NOT VALID. ATS WI SIMFEROPOL FIR BDRY PROVIDED ACCORDING TO AIP RUSSIA. ALL RADIO NAVIGATION AIDS OPR AND PROVIDE ATS WI SIMFEROPOL FIR BDRY AND AT SIMFEROPOL AD.
02 DEC 11:51 2021 UNTIL 23 FEB 23:59 2022 ESTIMATED.
CREATED: 02 DEC 11:54 2021
Source: USA
Reference: SFAR 113
Issued: 06-Oct-21, valid until: 27 Oct 2023
Plain English: This SFAR bans US operators overflying the eastern part of the UKDV/Dnipropetrovsk FIR due to a continued threat of arms fire in the region.
This action amends and extends the Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) prohibiting certain flights in the specified areas of the Dnipro Flight Information Region (FIR) (UKDV) by all: U.S. air carriers; U.S. commercial operators; persons exercising the privileges of an airman certificate issued by the FAA, except when such persons are operating U.S.-registered aircraft for a foreign air carrier; and operators of U.S.-registered civil aircraft, except when the operator of such aircraft is a foreign air carrier. The FAA finds this action necessary to address hazards to persons and aircraft engaged in such flight operations due to the continuing hostilities along the line of contact between Ukraine and Russian-backed separatists and heightened tensions between Russia and Ukraine. The FAA extends the expiration date of this Special Federal Aviation Regulation from October 27, 2021, until October 27, 2023. Additionally, the FAA republishes the approval process and exemption information for this SFAR, consistent with other recently published flight prohibition SFARs, and makes minor administrative revisions.
Source: USA
Issued: 17-Apr-21, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Operators should exercise extreme caution within 100nm of the entire Russia-Ukraine border due to the risk of misidentification or miscalculation from potential weapons activity.
SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ADVISORY FOR SPECIFIED AREAS OF THE MOSCOW FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (UUWV) AND THE ROSTOV-NA DONU FIR (URRV).

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) BELOW ARE ADVISED TO EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN FLYING INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THOSE AREAS OF THE MOSCOW FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (UUWV) AND THE ROSTOV-NA DONU FIR (URRV) WITHIN 100NM OF THE BOUNDARIES WITH THE DNIPRO FIR (UKDV), THE SIMFEROPOL FIR (UKFV), AND THE KYIV FIR (UKBV) (INCLUDES THAT PORTION OF THE KYIV UPPER INFORMATION REGION (UIR) (UKBU) AIRSPACE WITHIN THE LATERAL LIMITS OF THE UKDV, UKFV, AND UKBV FIRS) DUE TO POTENTIAL SAFETY-OF-FLIGHT RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ESCALATING REGIONAL TENSIONS BETWEEEN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE, WHICH COULD POTENTIALLY RESULT IN NO-NOTICE CROSS-BORDER SKIRMISHES, INCREASED MILITARY ACTIVITIES, AND/OR CONFLICT.

A. APPLICABILITY. THIS NOTAM APPLIES TO ALL: U.S. AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS; PERSONS EXERCISING THE PRIVILEGES OF AN AIRMAN CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY THE FAA, EXCEPT WHEN SUCH PERSONS ARE OPERATING U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT FOR A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER; AND OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED CIVIL AIRCRAFT, EXCEPT WHEN THE OPERATOR OF SUCH AIRCRAFT IS A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER.

B. PLANNING. THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) ABOVE PLANNING TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA ARE STRONGLY REMINDED TO REVIEW CURRENT SECURITY/THREAT INFORMATION AND NOTAMS; COMPLY WITH ALL APPLICABLE FAA REGULATIONS, OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS, MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATIONS, AND LETTERS OF AUTHORIZATION, INCLUDING UPDATING B450; AND, TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT POSSIBLE, PROVIDE AT LEAST 72-HOUR ADVANCE NOTICE OF PLANNED FLIGHTS TO THE FAA AT FAA-WATCH@FAA.GOV WITH SPECIFIC FLIGHT DETAILS.

C. OPERATIONS. PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) ABOVE WHO DECIDE TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA SHOULD PLAN TO EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION DURING FLIGHT OPERATIONS DUE TO THE POTENTIAL RISK TO CIVIL AVIATION OF MISIDENTIFICATION, MISPERCEPTION, OR MISCALCULATION, PARTICULARLY IN THE EVENT OF POTENTIAL HOSTILITIES. THE PRIMARY CIVIL AVIATION RISK CONCERN IS FOR OPERATIONS NEAR OR OVER THE UKRAINE-RUSSIA BORDER.

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) ABOVE MUST REPORT SAFETY AND/OR SECURITY INCIDENTS TO THE FAA AT +1 202-267-3333.

SFC - UNL, 17 APR 00:30 2021 UNTIL PERM. CREATED: 17 APR 00:31 2021
Source: France
Reference: AIC 18/21
Issued: 22-Oct-20, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Overflights of the UKFV and UKDV FIRs in the east of the country should only be planned over six Black Sea airways: M854, M856, M860, L851, M435, and M861.
From 22/10/2020 and until further notice, French air carriers and owners of aircraft registered in France are requested not to authorize their aircraft to penetrate into UKDV (DNIPROPETROVS’K) and UKFV (SIMFEROPOL) FIRs, except for routes segments M860 KUGOS - DIGAM, L851 KUGOS - ADINA, M854 SUMOL - RASIL, M856 RAKUR - DIGAM, M435 LAROM – RASIL and M861 RAKUR – BIRMA which are available for flight planning according to conditions published in Ukraine aeronautical information, and for which it is advisable to refer to the most current recommendations published by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).
Source: UK
Issued: 13-Oct-17, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Operators should not enter UKDV/Dnipro or UKFV/Simferopol FIRs with the exception of airways L851, M856, M860, and M854.
Hazardous Situation in Ukraine

Potential risk to aviation overflying eastern Ukraine from dedicated anti-aviation weaponry.

Operators are advised not to enter the Dnipropetrovsk (UKDV) and Simferopol (UKFV) FIRs, with the exception of Airways L851, M856, M860 and M854.
Source: UK
Issued: 20-Feb-15, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Possible conflicting ATC instructions due to disputed airspace in the Simferopol FIR.
Service Provision in Ukraine

As a result of the unrest within the territory and airspace of Ukraine, there remains the potential for confusion over service provision in the Simferopol (UKFV), in particular over the High Seas portion of the airspace.

Capacity may also be impacted in this area while all remaining Ukrainian FIRS appear to be operating normally.