Somalia

Risk Level: Two - Danger exists

[ about risk levels ]
Despite the ongoing conflict in Somalia the risk level is determined to be Level 2, the threats to aviation only exist below specified levels. However, our recommendation is to avoid the airspace entirely. The situation on the ground is highly unstable and there is an inherent risk to civilians and aircraft. The central government has little control of the major cities and ports with ongoing attacks from extremist militants targeting civilians. The advice from our information sources is all similar; “do not operate below a minimum of FL260 in the airspace of Somalia”. (Note UR401 SIHIL-AXINA is excluded from this by one authority) “There is a high risk to overflying aircraft from anti aviation weaponry”.

An Embraer EMB-120 was shot down while on approach to Bardale airstrip on May 4, 2020, killing all six people on board - an accidental shoot-down by Ethiopian forces stationed in the region.

Current warnings list :

Source Reference Issued Valid to
Germany Notam B1693/20 26 Oct 2020 28 Jan 2021
France AIC 23/20 09 Apr 2020 Ongoing
USA SFAR 107 11 Dec 2019 07 Jan 2023
USA Notam KICZ A0028/19 11 Dec 2019 07 Jan 2023
Somalia Notam A0035/18 13 Apr 2018 13 Jul 2018
UK UK AIP ENR 1.1 (1.4.5) 08 Jan 2016 Ongoing
Source: Germany
Reference: Notam B1693/20
Issued: 26-Oct-20, valid until: 28 Jan 2021
Plain English: Do not operate to airports in Somalia, and do not overfly the airspace below FL260 except for UR401.
B1693/20 (Issued for EDWW EDGG EDMM)
SECURITY SOMALIA POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS SITUATION FIR MOGADISHU (HCSM)

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY ADVISES CIVIL GERMAN AIR OPERATORS NOT TO PLAN AND CONDUCT FLIGHTS WITHIN FIR MOGADISHU (HCSM) BELOW FL260 WITH THE EXCEPTION OF AIRWAY UR401 BETWEEN WAYPOINTS SUHIL AND AXINA INCLUDING LANDING, TAXIIING, PARKING AND TAKE OFF AT ALL AIRPORTS DUE TO POTENTIAL RISK TO AVIATION FROM DEDICATED ANTI-AVIATION WEAPONRY AND MILITARY OPERATIONS AND ARMED CONFLICTS.

EMERGENCY SITUATIONS: IN AN EMERGENCY THAT REQUIRES IMMEDIATE DECISION AND ACTION FOR THE SAFETY OF THE FLIGHT, THE PILOT IN COMMAND MAY DEVIATE FROM THIS NOTAM TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY THAT EMERGENCY.

30 OCT 00:00 2020 UNTIL 27 JAN 23:59 2021. CREATED: 26 OCT 08:57 2020
Source: France
Reference: AIC 23/20
Issued: 09-Apr-20, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Overflights should be at FL260 or above.
From 09/04/2020 and until further notice, French air carriers and aircraft owners registered in France are requested to ensure that their aircraft maintain at all times a flight level above or equal to FL260 in the airspace of Somalia (HCSM FIR (MOGADISHU))
Source: USA
Reference: SFAR 107
Issued: 11-Dec-19, valid until: 07 Jan 2023
Plain English: US operators are prohibited operating below FL260 in the airspace of Somalia.
The FAA continues to assess the situation in the territory and airspace of Somalia at altitudes below FL260 as being hazardous for U.S. civil aviation operations due to the poor security environment and fragile governance structure in Somalia, as well as the threat posed by al-Shabaab, an al-Qa'ida-aligned extremist group, and other extremists/militants. Al-Shabaab has demonstrated an intent and capabilities to target civil aviation operations in the territory and airspace of Somalia through a variety of means, including the use of an insider to smuggle a concealed IED onto a civil aircraft, use of anti-aircraft-capable weapons, and direct and indirect attacks on Somali airports. Al-Shabaab has frequently targeted Aden Adde International Airport (HCMM) with attacks using indirect fire, small arms fire and vehicle-borne IEDs. Al-Shabaab has conducted multiple mortar attacks targeting the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) at Aden Adde International Airport (HCMM), and has done so as recently as January 1, 2019. Al-Shabaab frequently conducts vehicle-borne IED attacks targeting Western interests and public venues in Mogadishu, including detonating vehicle-borne IEDs near malls (February 2019), hotels (November 2018) and near a security check point close to Aden Adde International Airport (HCMM) (June 2019). In addition, al-Shabaab is assessed to have access to anti-aircraft-capable weapons presenting a risk to U.S. civil aviation operations at altitudes below FL260. Furthermore, ISIS has a cell trying to gain influence in Somalia, which presents another extremist threat to Western interests, including civil aviation. ISIS elements in Somalia may have access to anti-aircraft-capable weapons.

In February 2019, AMISOM began to draw down its forces, as its mandate expires in 2020, and began transferring security responsibilities back to Somalia. During the AMISOM drawdown, al-Shabaab may attempt to exploit vulnerabilities in Somali security and increase attacks on remaining AMISOM bases and Western interests. For these reasons, the FAA is concerned the risk to U.S. civil aviation operations may increase as AMISOM continues its scheduled drawdown.

Therefore, as a result of the significant continuing risks to the safety of U.S. civil aviation in the territory and airspace of Somalia at altitudes below FL260, the FAA extends the expiration date of SFAR No. 107, § 91.1613, from January 7, 2020 until January 7, 2023. By this action, the FAA prohibits flight operations in the territory and airspace of Somalia at altitudes below FL260 by all: U.S. air carriers; U.S. commercial operators; persons exercising the privileges of an airman certificate issued by the FAA, except when such persons are operating U.S.-registered aircraft for a foreign air carrier; and operators of U.S.-registered civil aircraft, except when the operator of such aircraft is a foreign air carrier.
Source: USA
Issued: 11-Dec-19, valid until: 07 Jan 2023
Plain English: US operators are prohibited operating below FL260 in the airspace of Somalia.
KICZ A0028/19 - SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FLIGHT PROHIBITION AGAINST CERTAIN FLIGHTS IN THE TERRITORY AND AIRSPACE OF SOMALIA.

14 CFR 91.1613 SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATION (SFAR) NO. 107 PROHIBITION AGAINST CERTAIN FLIGHTS IN THE TERRITORY AND AIRSPACE OF SOMALIA WAS PUBLISHED IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER ON 11 DEC 2019 AND WAS EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS PROVIDED AT:
HTTPS://WWW.FAA.GOV/AIR_TRAFFIC/PUBLICATIONS/US_RESTRICTIONS/. SFC - 259, 11 DEC 13:00 2019 UNTIL 07 JAN 23:59 2023. CREATED: 11 DEC 12:57 2019
Source: Somalia
Reference: Notam A0035/18
Issued: 13-Apr-18, valid until: 13 Jul 2018
Plain English: Somalia themselves published a Notam in 2018 saying that armed conflict and a lack of Aeronautical information present a safety and security risk to aircraft.
HCMM/ADEN A0035/18

13APR 0913Z- OPRATORS SHOULD EXERCISE EXTREME CTN AND FULLY ASSES THE POTENTIAL RISKS TO FLIGHT SAFETY AND SECURITY WHEN PLANING OR COMDUCTING OPS INTO MUGADISHU AIRPORT DUE TO LACK OF IMFORMATION OR ARMED CONFLICTS STOP.

13 APR 09:30 2018 UNTIL 13 JUL 09:30 2018.
Source: UK
Issued: 08-Jan-16, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Operators should avoid overflying Somalia airspace below FL250.
Hazardous Situation in Somalia

Potential risk to aviation overflying Somalia (Mogadishu FIR - HCSM) at less than 25,000 ft above ground level (agl) from dedicated antiaircraft weaponry.

Operators are advised to avoid operating at less than 25,000 ft agl in Somalia (Mogadishu FIR - HCSM).