Russia

Risk Level: Three - Caution

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There is an active conflict zone in eastern Ukraine along the border with Russia. The main hotspot is the Line of Contact which runs north-south through the UKDV/Dnipropetrovsk FIR. Escalating tensions here as of April 2021, with a large military build-up and an increase in ceasefire violations. Essentially, similar conditions to those prior to the shoot-down of MH17 in 2014. The US warns operators to exercise extreme caution within 100nm of the entire Russia-Ukraine border, and bans US operators from overflying the eastern part of the UKDV FIR.

The primary risk is for operations near the Russia-Ukraine border and Line of Contact in the UKDV/Dnipropetrovsk FIR. Should hostilities escalate here, the airspace on both sides could be exposed to potential weapons activity posing a risk to civil aircraft from misidentification or miscalculation.

Major events:
Apr 2021: US FAA warns of escalating tensions along the Ukraine/Russia border.
Oct 2020: US operators now allowed to overfly Crimea again (UKFV/Simeropol FIR). Ops in the eastern half of the UKDV/Dnipro FIR remain prohibited.
July 2014: Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 flying over Ukraine at FL330 just west of the Russian border was mistakenly shot down after being misidentified as a hostile target by Russian-backed troops on the ground.

Current warnings list :

Source Reference Issued Valid to
USA US FAA Background Notice 22 Apr 2021 Ongoing
USA Notam KICZ A0012/21 17 Apr 2021 Ongoing
USA FAA Information Note Russia/Ukraine 13 Apr 2021 Ongoing
Source: USA
Issued: 22-Apr-21, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Caution if operating in the UUWV or URRV FIRs on the border with Ukraine due to risks associated with escalating tensions between Russia and Ukraine. Should hostilities escalate, the airspace on both sides of the border could be exposed to potential weapons activity posing a risk to civil aircraft from misidentification or misperception.
FAA Background Information Regarding U.S. Civil Aviation in Specified Portions of the Moscow (UUWV) and the Rostov-Na Donu Flight Information Regions (FIR) (URRV).

Russia's military force mobilization in occupied Crimea and along the Russia-Ukraine border, increased ceasefire violations along the established line of contact in eastern Ukraine, and heightened political rhetoric have the potential to further escalate tensions in the region and increase potential risk to U.S. civil aviation operations. The FAA advises U.S. civil aviation to exercise extreme caution when flying into, out of, within, or over the airspace described in Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) KICZ A0012/21 due to the potential safety-of-flight risks associated with escalating regional tensions between Russia and Ukraine, which could potentially result in no-notice cross-border skirmishes, increased military activities, and/or conflict. The situation is increasingly unpredictable, with substantial forces forward-deployed, including advanced longrange anti-aircraft-capable weapon systems. The potential for human error, miscalculation, or potential deliberate cross-border action could endanger civil aviation.

Over the past few months, there have been an increasing number of ceasefire violations in eastern Ukraine, particularly near the line of contact bordering the Russian-controlled area. In addition, by March 2021, Russia had deployed additional military capabilities, including ground, tactical air, and air defense equipment to occupied Crimea and in close proximity to the RussiaUkraine border. Jamming and electronic warfare activity may also occur in the region, which could affect aircraft navigation and/or communications systems. Additionally, Russia recently announced its intent to close certain parts of the Black Sea, including areas near the Kerch Strait, which separates occupied Crimea from Russia, threatening Ukrainian maritime activity in, into, and out of the Sea of Azov. Ongoing Russian military exercises within the Moscow (UUWV) and the Rostov-Na Donu FIRs (URRV) near the Russia-Ukraine border further add to regional tensions. Overall, circumstances in the region present an increased potential inadvertent risk to civil aviation operations, due to the potential for miscalculation and/or misidentification in the Russia-Ukraine border region, as seen with the inadvertent shoot down of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (MH-17) over Ukraine in July 2014.

While the predominant civil aviation risk concern is for airspace over or near the line of contact in the adjacent Dnipro FIR (UKDV) and the Crimean Peninsula in the Simferopol FIR (UKFV), there is also concern for the entirety of the Russia-Ukraine border region.
Source: USA
Issued: 17-Apr-21, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Operators should exercise extreme caution within 100nm of the entire Russia-Ukraine border due to the risk of misidentification or miscalculation from potential weapons activity.
SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ADVISORY FOR SPECIFIED AREAS OF THE MOSCOW FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (UUWV) AND THE ROSTOV-NA DONU FIR (URRV).

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) BELOW ARE ADVISED TO EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN FLYING INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THOSE AREAS OF THE MOSCOW FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (UUWV) AND THE ROSTOV-NA DONU FIR (URRV) WITHIN 100NM OF THE BOUNDARIES WITH THE DNIPRO FIR (UKDV), THE SIMFEROPOL FIR (UKFV), AND THE KYIV FIR (UKBV) (INCLUDES THAT PORTION OF THE KYIV UPPER INFORMATION REGION (UIR) (UKBU) AIRSPACE WITHIN THE LATERAL LIMITS OF THE UKDV, UKFV, AND UKBV FIRS) DUE TO POTENTIAL SAFETY-OF-FLIGHT RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ESCALATING REGIONAL TENSIONS BETWEEEN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE, WHICH COULD POTENTIALLY RESULT IN NO-NOTICE CROSS-BORDER SKIRMISHES, INCREASED MILITARY ACTIVITIES, AND/OR CONFLICT.

A. APPLICABILITY. THIS NOTAM APPLIES TO ALL: U.S. AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS; PERSONS EXERCISING THE PRIVILEGES OF AN AIRMAN CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY THE FAA, EXCEPT WHEN SUCH PERSONS ARE OPERATING U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT FOR A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER; AND OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED CIVIL AIRCRAFT, EXCEPT WHEN THE OPERATOR OF SUCH AIRCRAFT IS A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER.

B. PLANNING. THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) ABOVE PLANNING TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA ARE STRONGLY REMINDED TO REVIEW CURRENT SECURITY/THREAT INFORMATION AND NOTAMS; COMPLY WITH ALL APPLICABLE FAA REGULATIONS, OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS, MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATIONS, AND LETTERS OF AUTHORIZATION, INCLUDING UPDATING B450; AND, TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT POSSIBLE, PROVIDE AT LEAST 72-HOUR ADVANCE NOTICE OF PLANNED FLIGHTS TO THE FAA AT FAA-WATCH@FAA.GOV WITH SPECIFIC FLIGHT DETAILS.

C. OPERATIONS. PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) ABOVE WHO DECIDE TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA SHOULD PLAN TO EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION DURING FLIGHT OPERATIONS DUE TO THE POTENTIAL RISK TO CIVIL AVIATION OF MISIDENTIFICATION, MISPERCEPTION, OR MISCALCULATION, PARTICULARLY IN THE EVENT OF POTENTIAL HOSTILITIES. THE PRIMARY CIVIL AVIATION RISK CONCERN IS FOR OPERATIONS NEAR OR OVER THE UKRAINE-RUSSIA BORDER.

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) ABOVE MUST REPORT SAFETY AND/OR SECURITY INCIDENTS TO THE FAA AT +1 202-267-3333.

SFC - UNL, 17 APR 00:30 2021 UNTIL PERM. CREATED: 17 APR 00:31 2021
Source: USA
Issued: 13-Apr-21, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Escalating tensions in the east of Ukraine along the border with Russia. Large military buildup and recent increase in ceasefire violations. Several new reports of GPS jamming in the area, along with known surveillance of civil flights by military systems. Similar conditions to those prior to the shoot-down of MH17 in 2014. Should hostilities escalate, the airspace on both sides of the border could be exposed to potential weapons activity posing a risk to civil aircraft from misidentification or misperception.
Title: FAA Information Note - Russia/Ukraine - Escalating Border Tensions

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