Egypt

Risk Level: Two - Danger exists

[ about risk levels ]
Since the Arab Spring, Egypt’s stability and security situation as a state has declined.

-July 2019: British Airways suspends Cairo operations for one week due to security concerns
-In February 2017 an an SA-7 anti-aircraft missile tube was found less than a mile from HECA/Cairo airport.
-In October 2015 a Russian A321 was brought down over the Sinai peninsula by a bomb loaded at HESH/Sharm El Sheikh. The group claimed the IED was placed aboard the aircraft prior to departing HESH, raising concerns of potential insider threats at the airport.

There remains a threat from terrorism in Egypt, particularly in the Sinai Peninsular - most countries advise against operating to airports in this region, as well as overflights below FL260.

Current warnings list :

Source Reference Issued Valid to
USA Notam KICZ A0010/21 30 Mar 2021 30 Mar 2022
Germany AIC 10/21 20 May 2020 Ongoing
USA US FAA Background Notice 30 Mar 2020 Ongoing
Ireland Notam B0152/20 04 Mar 2020 30 Apr 2020
Egypt Notam A0266/18 25 Mar 2019 26 Sep 2019
UK UK AIP ENR 1.1 (1.4.5) 08 Oct 2015 Ongoing
Source: USA
Issued: 30-Mar-21, valid until: 30 Mar 2022
Plain English: Avoid overflying the Sinai Peninsula below FL260.
A0010/21
SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ADVISORY FOR EGYPT SINAI PENINSULA.

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) BLW ARE ADV TO EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN FLYING INTO, OUT OF, WI, OR OVER THE SINAI PENINSULA IN THE CAIRO FLT INFO REGION (FIR) (HECC) AT ALT BLW FL260 WI THE FOLLOWING LATERAL LIMITS: 311855N 0321900E TO 294443N 0322815E TO 281650N 0331928E TO 272900N 0341900E TO 292920N 0345500E THEN ALONG THE EGYPT/ISRAEL BORDER TO 311800N 0341300E TO 311855N 0321900E. THIS NOTAM RENEWS THE ADVISORY PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED IN NOTAM KICZ A0040/20.

A. APPLICABILITY. THIS NOTAM APPLIES TO: ALL U.S. AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS; ALL PERSONS EXERCISING THE PRIVILEGES OF AN AIRMAN CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY THE FAA, EXC WHEN SUCH PERSONS ARE OPERATING U.S.-REGISTERED ACFT FOR A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER; AND ALL OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED CIVIL ACFT, EXC WHEN THE OPERATOR OF SUCH ACFT IS A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER.

B. PLANNING. THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) PLANNING TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WI, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA ARE STRONGLY REMINDED TO REVIEW CURRENT SECURITY/THREAT INFO AND NOTAMS; COMPLY WITH ALL APPLICABLE FAA REGULATIONS, OPS SPECIFICATIONS, MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATIONS, AND LETTERS OF AUTH, INCLUDING UPDATING B450; AND, TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT POSSIBLE, PROVIDE AT LEAST 72-HOUR ADVANCE NOTICE OF PLANNED FLT TO THE FAA AT FAA-WATCH@FAA.GOV WITH SPECIFIC FLT DETAILS.

C. OPS. PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) WHO DECIDE TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WI, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA SHOULD PLAN TO EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION DURING FLT OPS DUE TO ONGOING FIGHTING BTN MILITARY FORCES AND EXTREMIST/MILITANT ELEMENTS AND THE CONTINUING EXTREMIST/MILITANT THREAT TO CIVIL AVIATION, WHICH INVOLVES A VARIETY OF ANTI-ACFT-CAPABLE WEAPONS, INCLUDING MAN-PORTABLE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS (MANPADS), ANTI-TANK MISSILES, SMALL-ARMS FIRE, AND INDIRECT FIRE WEAPONS, SUCH AS MORTARS AND ROCKETS TARGETING ACFT AND SINAI AIRPORTS.

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) MUST REPORT SAFETY AND/OR SECURITY INCIDENTS TO THE FAA AT +1 202-267-3333. THE JUSTIFICATION FOR THIS ADV WILL BE RE-EVALUATED BY 30 MARCH 2022. ADDITIONAL INFO IS PROVIDED AT: HTTPS://WWW.FAA.GOV/AIR_TRAFFIC/PUBLICATIONS/US_RESTRICTIONS/.

SFC - FL259, 30 MAR 11:15 2021 UNTIL 30 MAR 23:59 2022 ESTIMATED. CREATED: 30 MAR 11:35 2021
Source: Germany
Reference: AIC 10/21
Issued: 20-May-20, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Entire Sinai Peninsula presents a risk below FL260 for overflights and landings, with a particular focus on the northern part.
Hazardous situation in Egypt. Civil German air operators are advised not to plan and conduct flights within the northern part of Sinai Peninsula (as part of FIR CAIRO (HECC)) below FL260 including landing, taxiing, parking and take off. Potential risk to aviation from dedicated anti-aviation and ground to ground weaponry.

Affected part of Sinai Peninsula:
East between 311800N 322000E and 293000N 324000E to FIR CAIRO (HECC) boundary. Civil German air operators are advised to take potential risk into account in their risk assessment and routing decisions within the southern part of Sinai Peninsula (as part of FIR CAIRO (HECC)) below FL260 including landing, taxiing, parking and take off. Potential risk to aviation from latent threats.

Affected part of Sinai Peninsula: East between 293000N 324000E and 282000N 331500E and 273000N 341000E to FIR CAIRO (HECC) boundary.
Source: USA
Issued: 30-Mar-20, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Avoid overflying the Sinai Peninsula below FL260
FAA Background Information Regarding U.S. Civil Aviation – Egypt Sinai Peninsula in the Cairo (HECC) Flight Information Region (FIR).

Due to ongoing fighting between military forces and extremist/militant elements and the continuing extremist threat to civil aviation, the FAA assesses there is continued risk to U.S. civil aviation operating into, out of, within, or over the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula in the Cairo Flight Information Region (FIR) (HECC), within the lateral limits described in NOTAM A0040/20, at altitudes below Flight Level (FL) 260.

International civil air routes transiting the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula at altitudes below FL 260 and aircraft operating to and from Sinai airports are at risk from extremist/militant attacks involving a variety of anti-aircraft capable weapons, including man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), anti-tank missiles, small arms-fire and indirect fire weapons, such as mortars and rockets targeting aircraft and Sinai airports. Some MANPADS present a risk up to a maximum altitude of 25,000 feet.
The Islamic State in Iraq and ash-Sham in the Sinai (ISIS-Sinai), which is an Egypt-based affiliate of ISIS, continues to conduct attacks in the Sinai Peninsula, some of which have demonstrated their capability and intent to target critical infrastructure and civilian targets. Examples include an early February 2020 attack on a gas pipeline, a November 2017 attack on a mosque, and has previously conducted attacks on aviation-related targets between 2014-2017. During 2018-2019, ISIS-Sinai continued to focus its attacks on Egyptian security forces and police check points in the Sinai Peninsula. In December 2017, ISIS-Sinai used an anti-tank missile to destroy a military helicopter associated with VIP movement at Al ‘Arish. The attack at Al ‘Arish potentially demonstrated the group’s ability to target sensitive activities.

While predominately operating in the northern portion of the peninsula, ISIS-Sinai has previously demonstrated the capability to project threats into the southern Sinai. In February 2017, ISIS-Sinai militants in southern Sinai fired rockets across the border toward Eilat, Israel. In October 2015, ISIS claimed responsibility for the improvised explosive device (IED) attack destroying a Russian passenger aircraft enroute to St. Petersburg, Russia, shortly after its departure from Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport (ICAO: HESH) in the southern Sinai. The group claimed the IED was placed aboard the aircraft prior to departing HESH, raising concerns about potential insider threats at the airport. In June 2015, ISIS-Sinai fired rockets towards El Gora Airport (ICAO: HEGR) located in northern Sinai. Regarding aircraft in flight, in January 2014, ISIS-Sinai fired small arms at an Egyptian military aircraft and used MANPADS to shoot down an Egyptian military helicopter flying at low altitude. Although MANPADS have not been used to target civil aircraft in the Sinai, extremists/militants could potentially do so at any time with little or no warning.

The FAA will continue to monitor for changes in the risks to U.S. civil aviation operations in the Cairo (HECC) FIR and will adjust its advisory for U.S. civil aviation operations as conditions warrant.
Source: Ireland
Reference: Notam B0152/20
Issued: 04-Mar-20, valid until: 30 Apr 2020
Plain English: Avoid overflying the Sinai Peninsula below FL260
B0152/20 (Issued for EISN)
FLIGHT IN EGYPT AIRSPACE, CAIRO FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR HECC), SINAI PENINSULA. THE IRISH AVIATION AUTHORITY HAS BEEN DIRECTED BY THE MINISTER FOR TRANSPORT, TOURISM AND SPORT UNDER SECTION 7 (1) (B) OF THE IRISH AVIATION ACT 1993, TO ISSUE A DIRECTION TO IRISH AOC CARRIERS THAT IRISH AOC AIRCRAFT SHOULD NOT FLY BELOW 2600OFT IN EGYPT AIRSPACE, CAIRO FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR HECC), SINAI PENINSULA. THE IRISH AVIATION AUTHORITY, IN PURSUANCE OF ARTICLES 4,7 AND 25 OF THE IRISH AVIATION AUTHORITY (OPERATIONS) ORDER (S.I. NO.61 OF 2006), (HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AS THE ORDER), HEREBY DIRECTS THAT ALL IRISH AOC AIRCRAFT SHOULD NOT FLY BELOW 26000FT IN EGYPT'S AIRSPACE CAIRO FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR HECC), SINAI PENINSULA. 04 MAR 16:46 2020 UNTIL 30 APR 17:00 2020 ESTIMATED. CREATED: 04 MAR 16:47 2020
Source: Egypt
Reference: Notam A0266/18
Issued: 25-Mar-19, valid until: 26 Sep 2019
Plain English: Do not plan RNAV approaches at Cairo.
A0086/19 NOTAMR A0266/18
Q) HECC/QGAXX/I/NBO/A/000/999/3007N03125E010
A) HECA B) 1903251215 C) 1909261000 EST
E) DUE TO GPS JAMMING WI RADIUS 10NM CENTRE CAIRO ARP
300641N0312450E,RNAV (GNSS) APCH SHOULD NOT BE PLANNED AT CAIRO INTL
AP.
Source: UK
Issued: 08-Oct-15, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Risk to aircraft overfly Egypt's Northern Sinai region at less than FL250.
Hazardous Situation in Egypt

Potential risk to aviation overflying Egyptian airspace in Northern Sinai Governate within the area bounded by 311400N 0322200E - 294000N 0324000E - 293000N 0345400E - 312000N 0341200E - 311400N 0322200E (Cairo FIR, Sinai Peninsula) at less than 25,000 ft above ground level (agl) from dedicated anti-aviation weaponry.

Operators are strongly advised to avoid operating at less than 25,000 ft agl in this airspace.