Egypt

Risk Level: Two - Danger exists

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Since the Arab Spring, Egypt’s stability and security situation as a state has declined.

-July 2019: British Airways suspends Cairo operations for one week due to security concerns
-In February 2017 an an SA-7 anti-aircraft missile tube was found less than a mile from HECA/Cairo airport.
-In October 2015 a Russian A321 was brought down over the Sinai peninsula by a bomb loaded at HESH/Sharm El Sheikh. The group claimed the IED was placed aboard the aircraft prior to departing HESH, raising concerns of potential insider threats at the airport.

There remains a threat from terrorism in Egypt, particularly in the Sinai Peninsular - most countries advise against operating to airports in this region, as well as overflights below FL260.

Current warnings list :

Source Reference Issued Valid to
Germany Notam B1346/20 11 Aug 2020 17 Nov 2020
USA Notam KICZ A0040/20 30 Mar 2020 30 Mar 2021
USA US FAA Background Notice 30 Mar 2020 Ongoing
Ireland Notam B0152/20 04 Mar 2020 30 Apr 2020
Egypt Notam A0266/18 25 Mar 2019 26 Sep 2019
UK UK AIP ENR 1.1 (1.4.5) 08 Oct 2015 Ongoing
Source: Germany
Reference: Notam B1346/20
Issued: 11-Aug-20, valid until: 17 Nov 2020
Plain English: Updated German Notam: Entire Sinai Peninsula presents a risk below FL260 for overflights and landings, with a particular focus on the northern part (they define this northern part as everywhere above 2930N03240E).
B1346/20 (Issued for EDWW EDGG EDMM)
SECURITY EGYPT POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS SITUATION FIR CAIRO (HECC)

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY ADVISES CIVIL GERMAN AIR OPERATORS NOT TO PLAN AND CONDUCT FLIGHTS WITHIN FIR CAIRO (HECC) OVER THE NORTHERN PART OF SINAI PENINSULA BELOW FL 260 INCLUDING LANDING, TAXIING, PARKING AND TAKE OFF AT ALL AIRPORTS DUE TO POTENTIAL RISK TO AVIATION FROM DEDICATED ANTI-AVIATION AND GROUND TO GROUND WEAPONRY. AFFECTED PART OF SINAI PENINSULA: EAST BETWEEN 3118OON 322000E AND 293000N 324000E TO FIR CAIRO (HECC) BOUNDARY.

FOR THE SOUTHERN PART OF SINAI PENINSULA POTENTIAL RISK TO AVIATION WITHIN FIR CAIRO (HECC) BELOW FL260 INCLUDING LANDING, TAXIING, PARKING AND TAKE OFF AT ALL AIRPORTS DUE TO LATENT THREAT TO AVIATION. CIVIL GERMAN AIR OPERATORS ARE ADVISED TO TAKE POTENTIAL RISK INTO ACCOUNT IN THEIR RISK ASSESSMENTS AND ROUTEING DECISIONS. AFFECTED PART OF SINAI PENINSULA: EAST BETWEEN 293000N 324000E AND 282000N 3315OOE AND 273000N 341000E TO FIR CAIRO (HECC) BOUNDARY.

EMERGENCY SITUATION: IN AN EMERGENCY THAT REQUIRES IMMEDIATE DECISION AND ACTION FOR THE SAFETY OF THE FLIGHT, THE PILOT IN COMMAND MAY DEVIATE FROM THIS NOTAM TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY THAT EMERGENCY.

19 AUG 00:00 2020 UNTIL 16 NOV 23:59 2020. CREATED: 11 AUG 13:24 2020
Source: USA
Issued: 30-Mar-20, valid until: 30 Mar 2021
Plain English: Avoid overflying the Sinai Peninsula below FL260; if planning to do so, provide 3 days notice to the FAA.
A0040/20 (Issued for KICZ)
SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ADVISORY FOR EGYPT SINAI PENINSULA

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) BELOW SHOULD AVOID FLYING INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE SINAI PENINSULA IN THE CAIRO FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (HECC) AT ALTITUDES BELOW FL260 WITHIN THE FOLLOWING LATERAL LIMITS: 311855N 0321900E TO 294443N 0322815E TO 281650N 0331928E TO 272900N 0341900E TO 292920N 0345500E THEN ALONG THE EGYPT/ISRAEL BORDER TO 311800N 0341300E TO 311855N 0321900E.

A. APPLICABILITY. THIS NOTAM APPLIES TO: ALL U.S. AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS; ALL PERSONS EXERCISING THE PRIVILEGES OF AN AIRMAN CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY THE FAA, EXCEPT SUCH PERSONS OPERATING U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT FOR A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER; AND ALL OPERATORS OF AIRCRAFT REGISTERED IN THE UNITED STATES, EXCEPT WHERE THE OPERATOR OF SUCH AIRCRAFT IS A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER.

B. PLANNING. THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) PLANNING TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA MUST REVIEW CURRENT SECURITY/THREAT INFORMATION AND NOTAMS; COMPLY WITH ALL APPLICABLE FAA REGULATIONS, OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS, MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATIONS, AND LETTERS OF AUTHORIZATION, INCLUDING UPDATING B450; AND PROVIDE AT LEAST 72 HOURS ADVANCE NOTICE OF PLANNED FLIGHTS TO THE FAA AT FAA-WATCH@FAA.GOV WITH SPECIFIC FLIGHT DETAILS TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT POSSIBLE.

C. OPERATIONS. PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) WHO DECIDE TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA SHOULD PLAN TO EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION DURING FLIGHT OPERATIONS DUE TO ONGOING FIGHTING BETWEEN MILITARY FORCES AND EXTREMIST/MILITANT ELEMENTS AND THE CONTINUING EXTREMIST THREAT TO CIVIL AVIATION, WHICH INVOLVES A VARIETY OF ANTI-AIRCRAFT-CAPABLE WEAPONS, INCLUDING MAN-PORTABLE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS (MANPADS), ANTI-TANK MISSILES, SMALL-ARMS FIRE, AND INDIRECT FIRE WEAPONS, SUCH AS MORTARS AND ROCKETS TARGETING AIRCRAFT AND SINAI AIRPORTS.

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) MUST REPORT SAFETY AND/OR SECURITY INCIDENTS TO THE FAA AT +1 202-267-3333. THE JUSTIFICATION FOR THIS ADVISORY WILL BE RE-EVALUATED BY 30 MARCH 2021. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS PROVIDED AT: HTTPS://WWW.FAA.GOV/AIR_TRAFFIC/PUBLICATIONS/US_RESTRICTIONS/.

SFC - FL259, 30 MAR 13:23 2020 UNTIL 30 MAR 23:59 2021 ESTIMATED. CREATED: 30 MAR 13:53 2020.
Source: USA
Issued: 30-Mar-20, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Avoid overflying the Sinai Peninsula below FL260
FAA Background Information Regarding U.S. Civil Aviation – Egypt Sinai Peninsula in the Cairo (HECC) Flight Information Region (FIR).

Due to ongoing fighting between military forces and extremist/militant elements and the continuing extremist threat to civil aviation, the FAA assesses there is continued risk to U.S. civil aviation operating into, out of, within, or over the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula in the Cairo Flight Information Region (FIR) (HECC), within the lateral limits described in NOTAM A0040/20, at altitudes below Flight Level (FL) 260.

International civil air routes transiting the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula at altitudes below FL 260 and aircraft operating to and from Sinai airports are at risk from extremist/militant attacks involving a variety of anti-aircraft capable weapons, including man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), anti-tank missiles, small arms-fire and indirect fire weapons, such as mortars and rockets targeting aircraft and Sinai airports. Some MANPADS present a risk up to a maximum altitude of 25,000 feet.
The Islamic State in Iraq and ash-Sham in the Sinai (ISIS-Sinai), which is an Egypt-based affiliate of ISIS, continues to conduct attacks in the Sinai Peninsula, some of which have demonstrated their capability and intent to target critical infrastructure and civilian targets. Examples include an early February 2020 attack on a gas pipeline, a November 2017 attack on a mosque, and has previously conducted attacks on aviation-related targets between 2014-2017. During 2018-2019, ISIS-Sinai continued to focus its attacks on Egyptian security forces and police check points in the Sinai Peninsula. In December 2017, ISIS-Sinai used an anti-tank missile to destroy a military helicopter associated with VIP movement at Al ‘Arish. The attack at Al ‘Arish potentially demonstrated the group’s ability to target sensitive activities.

While predominately operating in the northern portion of the peninsula, ISIS-Sinai has previously demonstrated the capability to project threats into the southern Sinai. In February 2017, ISIS-Sinai militants in southern Sinai fired rockets across the border toward Eilat, Israel. In October 2015, ISIS claimed responsibility for the improvised explosive device (IED) attack destroying a Russian passenger aircraft enroute to St. Petersburg, Russia, shortly after its departure from Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport (ICAO: HESH) in the southern Sinai. The group claimed the IED was placed aboard the aircraft prior to departing HESH, raising concerns about potential insider threats at the airport. In June 2015, ISIS-Sinai fired rockets towards El Gora Airport (ICAO: HEGR) located in northern Sinai. Regarding aircraft in flight, in January 2014, ISIS-Sinai fired small arms at an Egyptian military aircraft and used MANPADS to shoot down an Egyptian military helicopter flying at low altitude. Although MANPADS have not been used to target civil aircraft in the Sinai, extremists/militants could potentially do so at any time with little or no warning.

The FAA will continue to monitor for changes in the risks to U.S. civil aviation operations in the Cairo (HECC) FIR and will adjust its advisory for U.S. civil aviation operations as conditions warrant.
Source: Ireland
Reference: Notam B0152/20
Issued: 04-Mar-20, valid until: 30 Apr 2020
Plain English: Avoid overflying the Sinai Peninsula below FL260
B0152/20 (Issued for EISN)
FLIGHT IN EGYPT AIRSPACE, CAIRO FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR HECC), SINAI PENINSULA. THE IRISH AVIATION AUTHORITY HAS BEEN DIRECTED BY THE MINISTER FOR TRANSPORT, TOURISM AND SPORT UNDER SECTION 7 (1) (B) OF THE IRISH AVIATION ACT 1993, TO ISSUE A DIRECTION TO IRISH AOC CARRIERS THAT IRISH AOC AIRCRAFT SHOULD NOT FLY BELOW 2600OFT IN EGYPT AIRSPACE, CAIRO FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR HECC), SINAI PENINSULA. THE IRISH AVIATION AUTHORITY, IN PURSUANCE OF ARTICLES 4,7 AND 25 OF THE IRISH AVIATION AUTHORITY (OPERATIONS) ORDER (S.I. NO.61 OF 2006), (HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AS THE ORDER), HEREBY DIRECTS THAT ALL IRISH AOC AIRCRAFT SHOULD NOT FLY BELOW 26000FT IN EGYPT'S AIRSPACE CAIRO FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR HECC), SINAI PENINSULA. 04 MAR 16:46 2020 UNTIL 30 APR 17:00 2020 ESTIMATED. CREATED: 04 MAR 16:47 2020
Source: Egypt
Reference: Notam A0266/18
Issued: 25-Mar-19, valid until: 26 Sep 2019
Plain English: Do not plan RNAV approaches at Cairo.
A0086/19 NOTAMR A0266/18
Q) HECC/QGAXX/I/NBO/A/000/999/3007N03125E010
A) HECA B) 1903251215 C) 1909261000 EST
E) DUE TO GPS JAMMING WI RADIUS 10NM CENTRE CAIRO ARP
300641N0312450E,RNAV (GNSS) APCH SHOULD NOT BE PLANNED AT CAIRO INTL
AP.
Source: UK
Issued: 08-Oct-15, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Risk to aircraft overfly Egypt's Northern Sinai region at less than FL250.
Hazardous Situation in Egypt

Potential risk to aviation overflying Egyptian airspace in Northern Sinai Governate within the area bounded by 311400N 0322200E - 294000N 0324000E - 293000N 0345400E - 312000N 0341200E - 311400N 0322200E (Cairo FIR, Sinai Peninsula) at less than 25,000 ft above ground level (agl) from dedicated anti-aviation weaponry.

Operators are strongly advised to avoid operating at less than 25,000 ft agl in this airspace.