Iran

Risk Level: Two - Danger exists

[ about risk levels ]
Developments in Iran should be closely monitored, especially for US operators. On 21 Jun 2019, the US FAA issued an Emergency Order to US Civil Aircraft, prohibiting all operators from entering the Tehran FIR in the area above the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. This came after Iran shot down a US military drone the previous day over the Strait of Hormuz. The US say it was over international waters, Iran say it was within their FIR. Either way, SAM missiles are now being fired in the area and this increases the possibility of misidentification of aircraft. 

The US has different Notams in place for different parts of Iran. Ultimately, US operators are prohibited from overflying the Tehran FIR in the overwater area above the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman (KICZ Notam A0019/19). For the rest of the overwater airspace in this region, as well as the airspace over Iran’s landmass itself, operators are advised to “exercise caution” due to heightened military activities and increased political tensions which present an inadvertent risk to civil aviation operations due to the potential for miscalculation or mis-identification (KICZ Notams A0022/19 and A0024/19 respectively).

Consider carefully overflights of the Tehran Fir (OIIX), as landings in Iran for US operators especially could be an issue. A Norwegian 737 was stuck in Iran for two months, due to sanctions around spare parts. The US says that Iran has publicly made threats to US military operations. They also warn of increased GPS jamming by Iran throughout this region. 

An older warning issued by the US in Sept 2018 also warns of the Iran overflight risk posed by missile launches fired from sites in the far west of the country against targets in Syria - these missiles also transit Iraq’s airspace (ORBB/Baghdad FIR), crossing over several busy international routes.

Current warnings list :

Source Reference Issued Valid to
USA Notam KICZ 0024/19 09 Sep 2019 09 Sep 2020
USA Notam KICZ A0022/19 19 Aug 2019 Ongoing
Italy Notam LIXX A4578/2019 22 Jun 2019 19 Sep 2019
India DGCA Notice 22JUN19 22 Jun 2019 Ongoing
UAE Safety Decision 2019-04 21 Jun 2019 Ongoing
USA Notam KICZ A0019/19 21 Jun 2019 Ongoing
USA US FAA Background Notice 21 Jun 2019 Ongoing
USA US FAA Background Notice 09 Sep 2018 09 Sep 2019
Source: USA
Issued: 09-Sep-19, valid until: 09 Sep 2020
Plain English: Exercise caution when operating in the OIIX FIR.
A0024/19 (Issued for KICZ) - SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ADVISORY FOR TEHRAN FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (OIIX).

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABLITY) BELOW ARE ADVISED TO EXERCISE CAUTION WHEN FLYING INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE TEHRAN FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (OIIX) DUE TO CONCERNS INVOLVING DECONFLICTION BETWEEN MILITARY ACTIVITIES AND CIVIL FLIGHT OPERATIONS. BEFORE OPERATING IN OR ADJACENT TO THE TEHRAN FIR (OIIX), CAREFULLY REVIEW CURRENT NOTAMS AND OTHER SOURCES OF AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION AND BE FAMILIAR WITH CURRENT CONDITIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST. IRANIAN AVIATION AUTHORITIES MAY ISSUE NOTAMS OR OTHER AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION DESCRIBING REQUIRED PROCEDURES FOR ENTRY INTO THE TEHRAN FIR (OIIX).

KICZ A0019/19 PROHIBITION NOTAM AGAINST CERTAIN FLIGHTS IN THE OVERWATER AREA OF THE TEHRAN FIR (OIIX) ABOVE THE PERSIAN GULF AND GULF OF OMAN REMAINS IN EFFECT.

A. APPLICABILITY. THIS NOTAM APPLIES TO: ALL U.S. AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS; ALL PERSONS EXERCISING THE PRIVILEGES OF AN AIRMAN CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY THE FAA, EXCEPT SUCH PERSONS OPERATING U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT FOR A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER; AND ALL OPERATORS OF AIRCRAFT REGISTERED IN THE UNITED STATES, EXCEPT WHERE THE OPERATOR OF SUCH AIRCRAFT IS A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER.

B. PLANNING. THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) PLANNING TO FLY INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA MUST REVIEW CURRENT SECURITY/THREAT INFORMATION AND NOTAMS AND COMPLY WITH ALL APPLICABLE FAA REGULATIONS, OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS, MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATIONS, AND LETTERS OF AUTHORIZATION, INCLUDING UPDATING B450.

C. OPERATIONS. ANY PERSON DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) PLANNING TO OPERATE INTO, OUT OF, WITHIN, OR OVER THE TEHRAN FIR (OIIX) SHOULD FILE A FLIGHT PLAN WELL IN ADVANCE AND CAREFULLY ADHERE TO THAT FLIGHT PLAN, UNLESS OTHERWISE DIRECTED BY AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL. ANY PERSON DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) MAKING AN UNANTICIPATED LANDING IN IRAN SHOULD CONTACT THE FOREIGN INTERESTS SECTION AT THE SWISS EMBASSY IN TEHRAN FOR ANY NEEDED ASSISTANCE AT TELEPHONE +98-21-2279-3912 OR +98-21-2279-3697.

THE UNITED STATES DOES NOT HAVE AN EMBASSY IN IRAN. THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) MUST REPORT SAFETY AND/OR SECURITY INCIDENTS RELATED TO THIS NOTAM TO THE FAA AT +1 202-267-3333.

THE JUSTIFICATION FOR THIS ADVISORY WILL BE RE-EVALUATED BY 9 SEP 2020. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS PROVIDED AT: HTTP://WWW.FAA.GOV/AIR_TRAFFIC/PUBLICATIONS/US_RESTRICTIONS/.

SFC - UNL 09 SEP 10:15 2019 UNTIL 09 SEP 23:59 2020. CREATED: 09 SEP 10:10 2019
Source: USA
Issued: 19-Aug-19, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Exercise caution in the overwater airspace above the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman region.
A0022/19
SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ADVISORY FOR OVERWATER AIRSPACE ABOVE THE PERSIAN GULF AND GULF OF OMAN.

THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A BELOW SHOULD EXERCISE CAUTION WHEN OPERATING IN OVERWATER AIRSPACE ABOVE THE PERSIAN GULF AND THE GULF OF OMAN DUE TO HEIGHTENED MILITARY ACTIVITIES AND INCREASED POLITICAL TENSIONS IN THE REGION, WHICH PRESENT AN INCREASING INADVERTENT RISK TO U.S. CIVIL AVIATION OPERATIONS DUE TO THE POTENTIAL FOR MISCALCULATION OR MIS-IDENTIFICATION. ADDITIONALLY, AIRCRAFT OPERATING IN THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA MAY ENCOUNTER INADVERTENT GPS INTERFERENCE AND OTHER COMMUNICATIONS JAMMING, WHICH COULD OCCUR WITH LITTLE TO NO WARNING.

A. APPLICABILITY. THIS NOTAM APPLIES TO: ALL U.S. AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS; ALL PERSONS EXERCISING THE PRIVILEGES OF AN AIRMAN CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY THE FAA, EXCEPT SUCH PERSONS OPERATING U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT FOR A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER; AND ALL OPERATORS OF AIRCRAFT REGISTERED IN THE UNITED STATES, EXCEPT WHERE THE OPERATOR OF SUCH AIRCRAFT IS A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER.

B. PLANNING. THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A PLANNING TO END PART 1 OF 2. 19 AUG 11:27 2019 UNTIL PERM. CREATED: 19 AUG 11:30 2019 A0022/19 (Issued for KICZ PART 2 OF 2) - OPERATE IN THE ABOVE-NAMED AREA MUST REVIEW CURRENT SECURITY/THREAT INFORMATION AND NOTAMS AND COMPLY WITH ALL APPLICABLE FAA REGULATIONS, OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS, MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATIONS, AND LETTERS OF AUTHORIZATION, INCLUDING UPDATING B450.

C. OPERATIONS. EXERCISE CAUTION DURING FLIGHT OPERATIONS DUE TO THE POSSIBILITY OF INTERRUPTIONS TO INTERNATIONAL AIR TRAFFIC DUE TO HEIGHTENED MILITARY ACTIVITIES AND INCREASED POLITICAL TENSIONS IN THE REGION. POTENTIALLY AFFECTED OVERWATER AIRSPACE ABOVE THE PERSIAN GULF AND THE GULF OF OMAN INCLUDES PORTIONS OF THE BAGHDAD FIR (ORBB), KUWAIT FIR (OKAC), JEDDAH FIR (OEJD) , BAHRAIN FIR (OBBB), EMIRATES FIR (OMAE), AND MUSCAT FIR (OOMM). THOSE PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A MUST REPORT SAFETY AND/OR SECURITY INCIDENTS TO THE FAA AT +1 202-267-3333.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS PROVIDED AT: HTTPS://WWW.FAA.GOV/AIR_TRAFFIC/PUBLICATIONS/US_RESTRICTIONS/.

SFC - UNL END PART 2 OF 2, 19 AUG 11:27 2019 UNTIL PERM. CREATED: 19 AUG 11:30 2019
Source: Italy
Issued: 22-Jun-19, valid until: 19 Sep 2019
Plain English: Unsafe situation in Persian Gulf
A4578/19 (Issued for LIBB LIMM LIRR)
AIRCRAFT OPERATORS WHEN PLANNING FLIGHT OPERATIONS IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN, OVER THE PERSIAN GULF, THE GULF OF OMAN AND IRANIAN AIRSPACE/FIR THERAN (OIIX), SHALL TAKE INTO SERIOUS CONSIDERATION THE UNSAFE RISKY SITUATION POSED TO AIR OPERATIONS BY ONGOING IRANIAN POLITICAL TENSIONS AND UNANNOUNCED HIGH INTENSITY MILITARY ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED TO MISSILE LAUNCHES RMK: LATEST OPERATIONAL INFORMATION ON AIRSPACE CLOSURES AND WARNINGS ARE AVAILABLE THROUGH NETWORK MANAGER WEBSITE 'NOP PORTAL' (PROTECTED VERSION REQUIRED PASSWORD).
22 JUN 21:32 2019 UNTIL 19 SEP 23:59 2019 ESTIMATED. CREATED: 22 JUN 21:33 2019
Source: India
Issued: 22-Jun-19, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Indian aircraft operators required to avoid 'affected' part of Iranian airspace.
From DGCA India: All Indian operators in consultation with DGCA have decided to avoid the affected part of Iranian Airspace to ensure safe travel for the passengers. They will re-route flights suitably.
Source: UAE
Issued: 21-Jun-19, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Risk to UAE Operators over Gulf, required to conduct risk assessment for overwater area of Tehran FIR.
Due to recent heightened military activities and increased tensions above certain areas of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The UAE GCAA have been closely monitoring and assessing the situation in the regions to determine possible impact on the safe Air Operation. And since there may be an unintentional risk to UAE Operators operating in specific areas over the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in Tehran FIR, this Safety Decision was issued for the interest of safety of Civil Aviation.



REQUIREMENTS: With immediate effect, All UAE Air Operators are required to conduct risk assessments in accordance with their GCAA approved procedures on the operation in the overwater area of Tehran (OIIX) Flight Information Region over the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. The risk assessments shall take in to account the available information concerning the operation in to the subject areas and the dynamic nature of the situation to determine the necessary measures and mitigations which must be taken Into consideration prior to and during operating in the areas referenced in this Safety Decision.



All UAE Air Operators shall continuously monitor and assess the situation and shall immediately report to GCAA any anomalies or unsafe conditions related to this Safety Decision. The UAE GCAA will keep monitoring the situation and issue further instruction if required.
Source: USA
Issued: 21-Jun-19, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: Do Not Fly in the overwater airspace above the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman region.
A0019/19 (Issued for KICZ)
SECURITY..UNITED STATES OF AMERICA PROHIBITION AGAINST CERTAIN FLIGHTS IN THE OVERWATER AREA OF THE TEHRAN FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (OIIX) ABOVE THE PERSIAN GULF AND GULF OF OMAN ONLY.

ALL FLIGHT OPERATIONS IN THE OVERWATER AREA OF THE TEHRAN FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION (FIR) (OIIX) ABOVE THE PERSIAN GULF AND GULF OF OMAN ONLY ARE PROHIBITED UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE DUE TO HEIGHTENED MILITARY ACTIVITIES AND INCREASED POLITICAL TENSIONS IN THE REGION, WHICH PRESENT AN INADVERTENT RISK TO U.S. CIVIL AVIATION OPERATIONS AND POTENTIAL FOR MISCALCULATION OR MIS-IDENTIFICATION. THE RISK TO U.S. CIVIL AVIATION IS DEMONSTRATED BY THE IRANIAN SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE SHOOT DOWN OF A U.S. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM ON 19 JUNE 2019 WHILE IT WAS OPERATING IN THE VICINITY OF CIVIL AIR ROUTES ABOVE THE GULF OF OMAN.

A. APPLICABILITY. THIS NOTAM APPLIES TO: ALL U.S. AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS; ALL PERSONS EXERCISING THE PRIVILEGES OF AN AIRMAN CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY THE FAA, EXCEPT SUCH PERSONS OPERATING U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT FOR A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER; AND ALL OPERATORS OF AIRCRAFT REGISTERED IN THE UNITED STATES, EXCEPT WHERE THE OPERATOR OF SUCH AIRCRAFT IS A FOREIGN AIR CARRIER.

B. PERMITTED OPERATIONS. THIS NOTAM DOES NOT PROHIBIT PERSONS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH A (APPLICABILITY) FROM CONDUCTING FLIGHT OPERATIONS IN THE ABOVE NAMED AREA WHEN SUCH OPERATIONS ARE AUTHORIZED EITHER BY ANOTHER AGENCY OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE FAA OR BY A DEVIATION, EXEMPTION, OR OTHER AUTHORIZATION ISSUED BY THE FAA ADMINISTRATOR. OPERATORS MUST CALL THE FAA WASHINGTON OPERATIONS CENTER AT 202-267-3333 TO INITIATE COORDINATION FOR FAA AUTHORIZATION TO CONDUCT OPERATIONS.

C. EMERGENCY SITUATIONS. IN AN EMERGENCY THAT REQUIRES IMMEDIATE DECISION AND ACTION FOR THE SAFETY OF THE FLIGHT, THE PILOT IN COMMAND OF AN AIRCRAFT MAY DEVIATE FROM THIS NOTAM TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY THAT EMERGENCY.

THIS NOTAM IS AN EMERGENCY ORDER ISSUED UNDER 49 USC 40113(A) AND 46105(C). ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IS PROVIDED AT: HTTPS://WWW.FAA.GOV/AIR_TRAFFIC/PUBLICATIONS/US_RESTRICTIONS/

SFC - UNL, 21 JUN 01:48 2019 UNTIL PERM. CREATED: 21 JUN 02:00 2019
Source: USA
Issued: 21-Jun-19, valid until: Ongoing
Plain English: FAA concerned about the escalation of tension and military activity within close proximity to high volume civil air routes.
Although the exact location of the attack is not yet available, there were numerous civil aviation aircraft operating in the area at the time of the intercept. According to flight tracking applications, the nearest civil aircraft was operating within approximately 45nm of the Global Hawk when it was targeted by the Iranian SAM. FAA remains concerned about the escalation of tension and military activity within close proximity to high volume civil air routes and the Iran’s willingness to use long-range SAMs in international airspace with little to no warning. As a result, there is concern about the potential for misidentification or miscalculation which could result in the inadvertent targeting of civil aviation.
Source: USA
Issued: 09-Sep-18, valid until: 09 Sep 2019
Plain English: Exercise caution when operating in the OIIX FIR.
FAA Background Information Regarding U.S. Civil Aviation in the Tehran Flight Information Region (FIR) (OIIX).

Due to concerns about deconfliction between military activities and civil flight operations, there is continued risk to U.S. civil aviation operating in the Tehran Flight Information Region (FIR) (OIIX). For this reason, on 9 September 2018, the FAA published Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) KICZ A0016/18, advising U.S. civil aviation to exercise caution when operating into, out of, within, or over the Tehran FIR (OIIX). The NOTAM also advised U.S. civil operators and airmen operating in or adjacent to the Tehran FIR (OIIX) to carefully review current NOTAMs and other sources of aeronautical information and be familiar with current conditions in the Middle East.

There are a wide array of military activities occurring within, emanating from, or transiting the Tehran FIR (OIIX) that present potential deconfliction concerns for U.S. civil aviation.

Additionally, there is concern for heightened Iranian air defense sensitivity and exercises as a result of regional instability and/or political tensions. Heightened Iranian air defense sensitivity may create an inadvertent risk to U.S. civil aviation operating in the Tehran FIR (OIIX). For example, a U.S. civil operator experienced a fighter intercept in the Tehran FIR (OIIX) in December 2017.

There are also military activities emanating from or transiting through the Tehran FIR (OIIX) that are associated with the conflict in Syria. These activities include, but are not limited to, Russian air-launched cruise missile attacks launched from over Iran toward targets in Syria and Russian maritime-launched land-attack cruise missiles fired from the Caspian Sea - four of which inadvertently impacted the ground in Iran while en-route to targets in Syria in October 2015. There is the potential for Iranian surface-to-surface missile fire from western Iran, targeting Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) positions located in the region (such as occurred in June 2017). Iran has also conducted multiple missile test launches in the Tehran FIR (OIIX). These activities present a military-civil deconfliction challenge in the region. Additionally, there is an inadvertent risk to U.S. civil aviation operations in the Tehran FIR (OIIX) from Iranian-fielded GPS jammers.

U.S. civil aviation operating in the Tehran FIR (OIIX) should closely follow civil and military air traffic control instructions, particularly during weather or mechanical diversions from published air routes. Security conditions could change rapidly, so operators are reminded to review applicable NOTAMs and other sources of aeronautical information, such as aeronautical information publications and circulars, on an ongoing basis.